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Declaration, Manifesto for Immediate Worldwide Shark Conservation Actions
By Jason Heller, July 11, 2007 @ 02:00 AM (EST)

An initiated global correspondence toward issue recognition, situational awareness and public information regarding biological destruction of sharks and related or associated species and systems.

A demonstrated consensus and petition.
We, the shark researchers of the world, are compelled to urge the governments of all nations to take immediate steps to conserve remaining shark populations worldwide.

There is a dire and immediate need to raise human awareness globally about the threat to shark populations and to promote their management, before it is too late.

Sharks are one of nature's most obvious indicators regarding the health of marine ecosystems; sharks and related species of rays and skates are vital fixtures within the intricate and varied food webs that cover fully most of our planet’s surface.

Fossil records indicate a tenure of over 400 million years and hundreds of species at or near the top of tidal estuarine, neritic, benthic and pelagic environments.

These often maligned creatures represent this planet’s original and primary jawed vertebrates and they need
protections/regulations against some of the many impacts of modern humanity; commercial and recreational
shark fishing, exhibit exploitations, habitat disruption, contamination and pollution continues to denude and
poison the character of our planet, and those that dwell there.

Sharks have much more cause to fear humans than the other way around. Modern human fishing practices, both commercial and recreational are eradicating many species of sharks while disrupting their respective ecologies.

As a consequence of increased commercial and recreational pressures on shark populations worldwide, their numbers are now in serious global decline.

Many species, including blue sharks, oceanic whitetips, shortfin makos, piked dogfish, smooth-hounds, reef sharks and even the whale shark are heavily exploited.

It is estimated that even if all commercial fishing were to cease, many of the large sharks may not recover within 50 years, if ever. Ironically, even with shark populations plummeting in both number and former range, they are still being depicted as a hazard to humanity.

An estimated 50% of the world shark catch is believed to be taken accidentally while fishing for other species such as tuna and swordfish. This unplanned capture of marine animals is called “bycatch”. Pelagic longlines, which are single-stranded fishing lines 18 to 72 kilometers long, with an average of 1500 baited hooks, as well as open ocean drift gill nets (often illegal) literally filter marine life from the seas. In some
regions, the number of sharks caught by longline fishermen account for 90% of total captures. As the bony
fish fisheries have been depleted, fishermen have compensated by increasing shark captures. However,
sharks are often more vulnerable to overfishing than bony fish are due to their slow rate of maturity and low
birth numbers.

Having evolved over the past 400 million years at or near to top of the food chain, sharks have developed into creatures with relatively few natural predators. They have thrived despite an arduous reproduction mode consisting of periodic or infrequent copulation followed by long gestation periods whereby they mature slowly and have few young. As apex predators, sharks are not equipped to withstand predation themselves and, for the above reasons, are highly vulnerable to exploitation. Exacerbating the problem is the fact many shark species segregate by size and sex, such that exploitation in a nursery area can be critically devastating.

It has been demonstrated that most commercial shark fisheries collapse within a few years due to commercial extinction of the target resource.

Humans catch sharks in order to obtain meat, cartilage, skin, oil and other products. Shark fins are used in Asian cooking to prepare shark fin soups. Recently, the demand for shark fins has increased dramatically, largely due to expanding and developing markets in the Peoples Republic of China and their competitors in Japan and Taiwan. Shark fins fetch a high price and this has led to the practice of finning sharks at sea, where the fins are sliced off while the rest of the body is discarded overboard. Often, the shark is still alive when finned and will face a slow and agonizing death as it sinks to the seafloor.

Almost all species of large and medium-sized sharks are fished for their fins. The gigantic growth industry of shark and shark fin fisheries is no longer relegated to certain Asian cultures but has expanded to markets in Europe, Africa, Central and South America and many developing nations in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Shark meat and shark byproducts are also increasingly being used as a cheap supplement for livestock and domestic animal feed. Additionally, shark cartilage is fraudulently advertised in pharmaceuticals as serving a role in cancer prevention. This marketing is based on the wrongful assumption that sharks do not suffer from cancer and ignores the mounting scientific research indicating that shark cartilage cannot either cure or prevent this disease. Some shark products, however, are traditional and viable. Shark liver is rich in vitamins and provides oil and squalene which are used as lubricants, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. ikewise, shark skin is used as a type of leather and shark corneas have been used as substitutes for human corneas. Teeth, jaws and taxidermied specimens have been used as decorations and as souvenirs.

It is unclear how many sharks are caught annually, but some conservationists estimate the number to be upwards of 100 million. A recent estimate of sharks killed in the fin trade alone stands at 73 million per year. Annual landings of cartilaginous fish reported to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations amounts to around 800,000 tons, but the actual tonnage is likely to be much higher as a result of underreporting. Industrial fishing vessels often operate in flagrant violation of fishing regulations and, in recent decades, it has been estimated that shark populations have declined by over 90%.

Humans also play a role in decreasing shark populations as a result of increased habitat destruction, resource depletion and environmental pollution. Toxic chemicals absorbed or ingested by smaller animals are passed up the food chain through consumption. Top predators, like sharks, are at the highest risk of contamination as toxins accumulate within the food chain, becoming most concentrated at the top.

Several shark species are now protected in some countries, but it is not enough. A comprehensive poly-national approach is warranted.

Conservation and management of shark fisheries needs to be based upon research in biology, ecology, distribution, abundance and exploitation of sharks, their prey and associated systems.

Despite being important parts of marine ecosystems, shark research is often neglected in favor of the more commercially viable bony fish and collaboration between agencies and academics is often wanting for cooperation.

Biological information on the life history of many shark species is necessary to better assess stock status and harvest impact. It is also necessary to better manage fisheries in which sharks constitute a significant level of bycatch. The lack of effective management and policy enforcement in many countries is leading to the extinction of many shark species. Consequently, the removal of sharks continues to upset and destabilize the ecological balance between predator and prey. The ability of marine ecosystems to support life has been severely crippled and the system is now in danger of collapse.

Therefore, we ask governments of all Nations, for immediate:

- protection of all endangered shark species;
- total ban on shark finning in national and international waters;
- management of fisheries in which sharks constitute significant bycatch;
- management of directed shark fisheries;
- control of trade and utilization of shark products;
- investment of resources into research on sharks to better assess stock status and harvest impact.

Signatures (139 shark researchers):

Alex Antoniou, Ph.D., Director of Field Operations
Shark Research Institute
P.O. Box 40, Princeton, NJ, 08540, USA
Randall Arauz, BSc. University of Costa Rica, President
1203-1100, Tibás, San José, Costa Rica
Mary V. Ashley, Ph.D., Professor
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago
845 W. Taylor St., M/C 066, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
Carla Jayne Louise Atkinson, BSc (Joint Hons), MSc. Currently PhD Student
University of Queensland, School of Biomedical Sciences
St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072 Australia
Joan Marie Backey, Teaching Associate, Graduate Student
California State University, Fullerton
800 North State College Blvd, Fullerton, CA, 92831, USA
Janine L. Baker, BSc. M. Env. St., PhD scholar
J.L. Baker, Marine Ecologist
Somerton Park, South Australia 5044, Australia
Harald Bänsch, MSc Biology, Chief Biologist
Sharkproject e.V.
Frankfurter Straße 111b, 63067 Offenbach, Germany
Albert Baranes, Dr., Head of the department of Ichthyology
Interuniversity Institute for Marine Sciences
IUI, POBox 469, 88000 Eilat, Israel
Alexandra Barron, Bsc, Manager
Banyan Tree Marine Lab
Vabbinfaru, North Male Atoll, Republic of Maldives
Joan Barrull Ventura, Biologist, Scientific Associate Laboratory of Vetebrates
Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona (Lab. Vertebrats, Edifici de Zoologia)
Passeig Picasso s/n, Parc de la Ciutadella, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
Alex Bartolí Villanova, Biologist, specialized in animal biology
CRAM Foundation (Conservation and Recovery Marine Animals Foundation)
Camí Ral, 239. C.P. 08330 Premià de Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Claire Bartron, PhD Candidate
Murdoch University
South St, Murdoch, Perth, W.A., 6150, Australia
Jamila Ben Souissi, Doctor, Professor
Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie
43, avenue Charles Nicolle, cité Mahrajène, 1082,Tunis, Tunisia
Otto Bismarck Fazzano Gadig, Dr., teacher and Researcher
UNESP - São Paulo State University
Praçca Infante Dom Henrique, s/n; Parque Bitaru, São Vicente, SP, Brazil 11330-900
Cheryl Black, Professor of Biology
Edison College
Fort Myers, Florida, USA
Ramón Bonfil, PhD, Independent Researcher and Consultant
351 E 4th St. New York, NY 10009, USA
Pedro Bordalo-Machado, Msc., Research Fellow
Av. de Brasilia s/n, 1449-006 Lisboa, Portugal
Jean-Luc Bouchereau, Professor, Doctor, Researcher
Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, UFR-SEN, UMR 7138 CNRS IRD MNHN UPMC: Systématique, Adaptation,
Évolution, Biologie marine (Campus de Fouillole)
BP 592, F-97159 Pointe-à-Pitre cedex, Guadeloupe
Mohamed Nejmeddine Bradai, Research Professor, Director of Laboratory
National Institute of Sea Sciences and Technologies
Box 1035 Sfax 3018 Tunisia
Corey J. A. Bradshaw, Associate Professor, Principal Research Fellow
Charles Darwin University
School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0909, Australia
Michèle Bruni, Curator Assistant
Musée océanographique de Monaco
Avenue Saint-Martin 98000 MC Monaco
Juerg M. Brunnschweiler, PhD, Research associate
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
Raemistrasse 101, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland
Alex Buttigieg, Independent Researcher, Founder
Sharkman's World Organization
P.O.Box 31, San Gwann, SGN 1000, Malta
Giuseppe Cancelliere, Dott.
Mediterranean Shark Research Group Member
via Filippo Tristano 53, 75025 Policoro (MT), Italy
Christian Capapé, Doctor, Professor
Université Montpellier 2
34 095 Montpellier cedex 5 France
Henri Cappetta, Dr.
Département Paléontologie, Phylogénie & Paléobiologie, UMR 5554 "Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution", Université
de Montpellier II - Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc
Cc 064, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
Antonio Celona
Aquastudio Research Institute
via Trapani 6, I-98121 Messina, Italy
Patricia Charvet de Almeida, Dr., elasmobranch researcher
Projeto Trygon
Rua Mundurucus, 2445 ap. 1202 - Cremacao - 66040-270 - Belem - Para - Brazil
Jeff Childs, Marine Wildlife Scientist
POB 111406 Anchorage, Alaska 99511-1406, USA
Franco Cigala Fulgosi, Dott. in Sc. Geologiche, Ricercatore, Prof. Paleontologia Corso di Laurea in Sc. Naturali
Dipartimento Scienze della Terra , Università di Parma
V.le G.P. Usberti, 157 A , Campus Universitario, 43100 Parma, Italy
Ralph S. Collier, President
Shark Research Committee
P. O. Box 3492, Chatsworth, CA 91313, USA
Shannon Corrigan, PhD candidate
Macquarie University
Biological Sciences Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
Marco Costantini, Dott., Marine Officer
University of Trieste & WWF Italy
Trieste, Italy
Dean Crawford, Visiting Assoc. Professor of English
Vassar College
124 Raymond Avenue, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604, USA
Gilles Cuny, Dr.
Geological Museum
Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark
Jesmond Dalli, M.Sc, Research Assistant
Queen Mary, University of London
Mile End, London, United Kingdom
Paul de Bruyn, Dr, Fisheries Scientist
Durban, South Africa
Francisco José Pinto de la Rosa, Display Curator
Museum Aquarium " Aula del Mar "
Avenida Manuel Agustin Heredia 35, Málaga 29001, Spain
Alessandro De Maddalena, Dott., President
Italian Ichthyological Society
via L. Ariosto 4, I-20145 Milano, Italy
Sergio Macedo Gomes de Mattos, Fishery Engineer, D.Sc., Head of Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy in
Pernambuco State
Special Secretariat of Aquaculture and Fisheries of the Brazilian Presidency
Av. Gen. San Martin, 1000. Bongi, Recife-PE. 50630-060, Brazil
Ricardo de Souza Rosa, PhD, Associate Professor
Dept. Sistematica e Ecologia, Universidade Federal da Paraiba
58059-900 Joao Pessoa PB, Brazil
Matthew Laurence Dicken, Dr, Marine Biologist
Bayworld Centre for Research and Education, Port Elizabeth Museum
PO BOX 13147, Humewood, 6013, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
Valentina Di Santo, Dottoressa, Graduate Research Eco-Physiologist
Department of Biology, University of West Florida
11000 University Parkway, Pensacola, Florida 32514, USA
Richard Ellis, Research Associate
American Museum of Natural History
79th Street & Central Park West, New York, NY 10024, USA
Héctor Espinosa P., M en C., Curador
Instituto de Biología, UNAM
CNP,Cd. Universitaria, 3er Cto Exterior S/N Mexico 04510, D.F.
Chris Fallows, graduate diploma, Director
Apex Shark Expeditions
14 Thibault walk, Marina da Gama, Cape Town, South Africa
Monique Fallows, graduate diploma, Director
Apex Shark Expeditions
14 Thibault walk, Marina da Gama, Cape Town, South Africa
Roberto Farkas, Student
Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università di Camerino
Via Circonvallazione, 62024 Matelica (MC), Italy
Edward Farrell, PhD Student in Marine Biodiversity, Ecology & Evolution
School of Biology & Environmental Science, Science Centre West, University College Dublin
Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
Dale Forbes, Msc, Biologist
Whale Shark & Oceanic Research Center
Utila, Islas de la Bahía, Honduras
Andrew Fox, Bsc Environmental Sciences, Managing Director
Fox Shark Research Foundation
73 Ninth Ave, Joslin, Adelaide, South Australia 5070, Australia
Steven Fox, Head Researcher
Utila Whale Shark Research
Utila, Bay Islands, Honduras
Jose Mª Galaz, Biology Graduate, Tuna Farming Techninal Director
Mediterranean Aquafarm Services s.l.
c/rio Bidasoa nº6A Playa Honda, Murcia, Spain
Roxana Laura Garcia Liotta, Master of Environmental Management (candidate), Director
Department of Conservation - Shark Conservation Program
Asociacion Ñande Yby – Nuestra Tierra
Rio de Janeiro 985, 3rd floor Office 8, C1405CCO Buenos Aires, Argentina
Andrew B. Gill, Dr, Lecturer
Natural Resources Department, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University
Building 37, Cranfield, Bedford MK43 0AL, United Kingdom
Onno Gross, Dr., President
Hegestr. 46 d, 20251 Hamburg, Germany
Javier Guallart Furio, Doctor of Biology, Associate professor
Laboratorio de Biologia Marina, Departamento de Zoologia, Universitat de Valencia
E-46100 Burjassot (Valencia), Spain
Mohammed Hamdine, Dr.
Faculté Centrale d'Alger, Institut des Sciences de la Mer et de l'Amenagement du Littoral
Sidi Fredj, BP 54, Alger 16060, Algeria
Neil Hammerschlag, Research Assitant & Doctoral Graduate Student
University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science
4600 Rickenbacker Cswy, Miami, Florida, 33149, USA
Stuart Hanchet, Dr, Group Manager
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA)
217 Akersten St, Port Nelson, New Zealand
Gary Hannon, M.Sc. Zoology - on Shark behaviour, Treasurer Irish Elasmobranch Group
c/o Frank Jeal, Irish Elasmobranch Group, Department of Zoology
Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Hans Hass, Prof. Dr.
Opernringhof, A-1010 Wien, Austria
Phillip Clarence Heemstra, Dr, Curator Emeritus
South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity
Private Bag 1015, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa
Farid Hemida, Maître de Conférences, Enseignant-Chercheur
Faculté des sciences biologiques, Université des sciences et techniques Houari Boumediene
BP 32- 16123- Bab-Ezzouar, Alger, Algeria
Eric R. Hoffmayer, Assistant Research Scientist
Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, The University of Southern Mississippi
P.O. Box 7000, Ocean Springs, MS 39566, USA
Johannes Andries Holtzhausen, Dr., Head: Large Pelagics
Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources
P.O. Box 912, Swakopmund, Namibia
Daniel Robert Huber, Ph.D., Assistant professor
Department of Biology, University of Tampa
401 W. Kennedy Blvd., Box U, Tampa, FL 33606, USA
Charlie Huveneers, Dr., Research Officer - Shark Ecology
South Australian Research and Develpment Institute (SARDI) – Aquatic Sciences
2 Hamra Avenue, West Beach SA 5024 Australia
Christopher Izzo, Phd Candidate
Southern Seas Ecology Laboratory, DP418, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Adelaide
Adelaide, South Australia, 5005 Australia
Ryan Johnson, Phd Candidate
Dept of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria
University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa
Raymond T. Jones, Ph.D., Professor of Pathology
Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine
22 South Greene St., Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
Laura Jordan, Doctoral Candidate
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Iain Robert Jupp, Honours Candidate
Charles Darwin University/ Australian Institute of Marine Science
DARWIN NT AUSTRALIA 0909 and 23 Ellengowan Drive Brinkin NT Australia 0810 (AIMS)
Hakan Kabasakal, MSc., Marine Biologist, Founding Member
Ichthyological Research Society
Mentesoglu Cad. Idil Apt., No:30/4, Umraniye TR-34764, Turkey
Ad. J. Kalmijn, Dr., Emeritus Scientist in Sensory Biophysics
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Alison Ann Kock, PhD Candidate/ researcher
Shark Research Centre Iziko Museums of Cape Town & University of Cape Town
P.O. Box 61, Cape Town, 8001, South Africa
Jorge Eduardo Kotas, Dr., Environmental Analist
Brazilian Institute for the Environment (IBAMA), Centro de Pesquisa e Gestão de Recursos Pesqueiros do Litoral
Sudeste e Sul (CEPSUL)/IBAMA
Av. Ministro Victor Konder S/Nº - Fundos da Marejada, CEP 88301-280 Itajaí – SC, Brazil
Juergen Kriwet, Dr. rer. Nat., Curator of fossil fishes
Museum of Natural History
Invalidenstr. 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany
Shawn Larson, Ph.D., Curator of Animal Health and Research
Seattle Aquarium
1483 Alaskan way, Pier 59, Seattle, WA 98101-2059, USA
Marie Levine, Executive Director
Shark Research Institute
70 Heather Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
Lovrenc Lipej, associate professor, Phd in biology, senior researcher
Marine Biology station, National institute of biology
Fornace 41, 6330 Piran, Slovenia
Feodor Litvinov, senior scientist
Atlantic Research Institute for Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (AtlantNIRO)
Dmitry Donskoy Str., 5, Kaliningrad, Russia
Mario Marconi, PhD Nature Sciences, Curator
Dept. Molecular, Cellular, Animal Biology & Natural History Museum - University of Camerino
Piazza dei Costanti 7, 62032 Camerino (MC), Italy
Adam Marques, Doctor, Professor
Université Montpellier 2
Place Eugène Bataillon 34095 Montpellier cedex 05 France
Stefano Marsili, PhD Student
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pisa
Via S. Maria, 53 - I-56162 Pisa, Italy
Andrew Martin, Associate Professor
Dept of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309, USA
Isabel Mate Alonso, Biologist, Scientific Associate Laboratory of Vetebrates
Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona (Lab. Vertebrats, Edifici de Zoologia)
Passeig Picasso s/n, Parc de la Ciutadella, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
Rory McAuley, Research Scientist
Department of Fisheries, Government of Western Australia
WA Fisheries and Marine Research Laboratory, PO Box 20, North Beach, Western Australia 6920, Australia
Mikki McComb, PhD Student
Florida Atlantic University
777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, Florida 33484, USA
John E. McCosker, PhD, Chair of Aquatic Biology
California Academy of Sciences
875 Howard Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-3009, USA
Bryan P. McNeil, B.S. Marine Biology, Biologist
Seattle Aquarium
1483 Alaskan Way, Pier 59, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
Hamadi Méjri, Engineer, Student in doctorat
Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie (INAT)
43 Avenue Charles Nicolle, Cité Mahrajène 1080, Tunis, Tunisia
Aline Mezergues, Master of biology
Mediterranean Shark Research Group Member
38 rue du Marathon, 14000 Caen, France
Stefano R. Montanari, Undergraduate student
James Cook University
James Cook Drive, Douglas 4811 Queensland, Australia
Alec B.M. Moore, Professional Marine Ecologist & Independent Elasmobranch Researcher, Senior
Environmental Consultant
RSK Environment Ltd.
Spring Lodge, 172 Chester, Road, Helsby, Cheshire WA6 0AR, United Kingdom
Gabriel Morey, Biologist
Fisheries Department - Balearic Islands Government
C/ Foners 10, 07006 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Walter Nisa-Castro-Neto, Dr., Coordinator of Projeto Carcharias and Biology Course
Universidade Luterana do Brasil - Torres
Rua Universitaria, 1900, Parque do Balonismo, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Brian Scott Nunez, Ph.D., Assistant Professor
The University of Texas Marine Science Institute
750 Channel View Drive, Port Aransas Texas 78373, USA
Luigi Piscitelli, Medico Veterinario Specializzato in Igiene e Ispezione degli Alimenti di Origine Animale,
Dirigente Veterinario
ASL Città di Milano
C.so Italia 19 20122 Milano, Italy
Ila France Porcher, naturalist/shark ethologist, Independent Researcher
B.P. 4206, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia
Matthew D. Potenski, Graduate Research Associate
The Guy Harvey Research Institute, Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center
8000 N Ocean Dr. Dania Beach, FL 33004, USA
David C. Powell, Director of Husbandry (retired)
Monterey Bay Aquarium
886 Cannery Row, Monterey, CA 93940, USA
Antonella Preti, Dr., Fisheries Biologist
Mediterranean Shark Research Group Member
San Diego, CA, USA
Peter Nick Psomadakis, Dr., Phd student in Marine Biology & Ecology
Università Politecnica delle Marche c/o ICRAM di Roma
Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
Robert Østlie Ramos, Cand. Mag., Ph.D. candidate
School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle
Brush Road, Ourimbah NSW 2258, Australia
John E. Randall, Dr., Senior Ichthyologist
Bishop Museum
1525 Bernice St., Honolulu, HI 06917-2704, USA
Mohammad Sharif Ranjbar, PhD. Student, Marine Biologist
Khoramshar University of marine Science and Technology
Khoramshar, Iran
Frank Reckel, Dr.
Mediterranean Shark Research Group Member
Josephsburgstr. 90b,81673 Munich, Germany
Gillian Renshaw, Associate Professor
Griffith University
PMB50 Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726, Australia
Christian Reynaud, phD, professor
Université Montpellier 2
Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 MONTPELLIER Cedex 5, France
Danilo Rezzolla, dottore in Scienze della Produzione Animale (Veterinaria), Responsabile Scientifico
MinItalia Aquarium
via Vittorio Veneto, 52 Capriate (MI), Italy
Maria Constanza Ribot Carballal, Master in Science, Student
Av. Politecnico Nacional s/n, Colonia Playa Palo de Santa Rita, La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Getulio Rincon, Doctor, Researcher Post-Doctor
Universidade Estadual Paulista-UNESP
UNESP Av 24A, 1515, Instituto de Biociências, Depto de Ecologia, Rio Claro-SP. CEP 13506-900, Brazil
Rachel Robbins, Dr, Chief Scientist
Fox Shark Research Foundation
73 Ninth Ave, Joslin, Adelaide, South Australia 5070, Australia
Vera Schluessel, PhD research student
The University of Queensland
Brisbane 4072, Queensland, Australia
Michael Christoph Scholl, Bsc, Project Leader, Founder and Trustee
White Shark Trust & University of Cape Town
P.O. Box 1258, Gansbaai 7220, Western Cape, South Africa
Ahmed M. Shawky, Environmental Researcher (Ranger)
Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA)
84721 Marsa Alam, Red Sea Protectorates, Egypt
Christina J. Slager, Curator
Husbandry Division, Monterey Bay Aquarium
886 Cannery Row, Monterey, CA 93940, USA
Ben Speers-Roesch, M.Sc., Ph.D. candidate
Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia
6270 University Blvd., Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4
Joanna Stead, PhD Candidate
Queensland Shark & Ray Research Group, Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University of
St Lucia, 4072, QLD, Australia
Charlott Stenberg, Master of Science, Marine biologist
Swedish Board of Fisheries
Box 423,SE-401 26 Gothenburg, Sweden
Tiziano Storai, Coordinatore progetto Sardinian Large Elasmobranch Database
DNAquA – Laboratorio di Ricerche sulla vita marina.
Via San Carlo Borromeo 1, 09100 Cagliari (CA), Italy
Alejandro Tagliafico Guzmán, Licenciado en Biología Marina, Investigador Contratado
Departamento de Evaluación de Recursos Pesqueros, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas (INIA)
La Asunción, Sector Salamanca, Isla de Margarita, Estado Nueva Esparta, INIA, Venezuela
Ron Taylor, Independent Researcher
Ron Taylor Film Productions Pty. Ltd.
Fairlight, New South Wales, 2094, Australia
Valerie Taylor, Independent Researcher
Ron Taylor Film Productions Pty. Ltd.
Fairlight, New South Wales, 2094, Australia
Jason R. Treberg, PhD, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Postdoctoral Fellow
Memorial University of Newfoundland
St. John's, NL, Canada
Dr Susan Turner, Dr, Member Australian UNESCO Commission Science Network, Hon. Research Fellow
Geology & Palaeontology, Queensland Museum and Monash University School of Geosciences
122 Gerler Rd, Hendra Q 4011, Australia
John Tyminski, Senior Biologist
Center for Shark Research, Mote Marine Laboratory
1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236, USA
Sean R. Van Sommeran, Executive Director/CEO
The Pelagic Shark Research Foundation
Santa Cruz, California, USA
Adriana Vella, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer and Researcher
Conservation Biology Research Group, University of Malta
Msida, MSD 06, Malta
Noel Vella, B.Sc (Hons), Researcher
Conservation Biology Group, Dept. of Biology, University of Malta
University of Malta, Malta
Frank Velte, Dipl.-Biologe
Zoologisches Institut, Johann-Wolfgang Goethe Universität
Frankfurt/ M, Germany
Darryl Lane Whitehead, Dr., Scientific Researcher
School of Integrative Biology, The University of Queensland
Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
John R. Williams, Professor of Chemistry
Department of Chemistry, Temple University
13th and Norris Sts, Philadelphia, PA 19122-2585, USA
Bruce Wright, Executive Director
Conservation Science Institute
California, USA
Barbara Wueringer, PhD Candidate
Marine Neurobiology Laboratory, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland
St Lucia Qld 4072, Australia
Nicolas Ziani, Manager in aquatic productions and fisheries project, Président
AILERONS (Association Ichtyologique pour L'Etude, la Recherche et l'Observation dans la Nature des Sélaciens)
6 rue des Avant-Monts, 34 080 Montpellier, France
Heike Zidowitz, Dipl.-Biol., board member German Elasmobranch Society
Biocentre Grindel & Zoological Museum, University of Hamburg
Martin-Luther-King-Platz 3, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
Marco Zuffa, Independent Researcher
Mediterranean Shark Research Group Member
via Prunaro 1, I-40064 Ozzano dell'Emilia (Bologna), Italy

Front cover photograph:
Shortfin mako sharks (Isurus oxyrinchus) at the Milano fish market, Italy (photograph by Alessandro De Maddalena).

Text © 2007 by Alessandro De Maddalena, Sean Van Sommeran and Wolfgang Leander.
Manifesto logo and front cover photograph © 2007 by Alessandro De Maddalena.



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